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Homesan diego 圣地亚哥Life 生活美國民事侵權法 (Torts) 中的Product Liability (中)

美國民事侵權法 (Torts) 中的Product Liability (中)

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上一篇我們提到manufacture defect製造缺陷, 那麼廠家缺陷有沒有什麼Defenses呢?當然有啦。首先可用的辯護是Post-sale alterations 銷售後的賣家改裝: Product was altered after it left D’s control, P must show original defect caused injury產品離開被告的控制後被改裝了,原告需要證明的是沒改裝前這個產品就有缺陷並且導致他受傷了。

第二個可用的辯護Time passage 時間的流失 (statutes of repose): Provides that product implicated in an injury will be conclusively presumed to be non-defective where the accident occurs more than certain number of years following the initial sale or manufacture (help D),當產品被賣出後很多年都沒有問題就可以暗示推測出沒有缺陷。最後一個可用的辯護時Settlements: these cases usually settle (hard to D and less costly to pay upfront),就說這些案件已經被調停了,被告已經支付過少量費用用於調停了。

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如果原告能夠證明有很多損傷的話可以起訴negligence疏忽(在另一篇有分析)。

WallandWall_Products_Liability_lawyer_utah

接下來會詳細介紹一下design defect設計缺陷裡面的兩個測試。

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第二,Design Defect設計缺陷: there is a common defect in each unit that the Seller could have eliminated through a reasonable alternative design,意思就是這個產品設計有普通的缺陷,並且銷售商有其他的方法把缺陷彌補的能力,但是銷售商並沒有去做。那麼到底如何證明這個產品有設計缺陷呢?這裡我們會用兩個測試。

第一個是Risk-Utility test風險實用性測試: P must show that risk from the product as designed outweighed utility of product as designed, 就是說這個產品設計的風險遠遠大於其實用性。這裡用七個Factor來權衡: (1) the usefulness and desirability of the product 就是說這個東西的實用好用度和客戶對該高級商品的渴望程度; (2) the safety aspects of the product 這個產品的安全指數; (3) the availability of a safer substitute product/design 比目前更安全的可替代的產品或者設計的可能性; (4) ability to make safe without impairing usefulness or making ti too expensive 把這個產品造的更安全但又不損傷性能不用花很多錢的可能性; (5) user’s ability to avoid danger 使用者去避開危險的可能性; (6) user’s anticipated awareness of dangers 使用者對於危險預期察覺; (7) spreading loss (if manufacturer can raise pool price just a little bit to compensate for paying for the loss) 如果廠家提高價格在一大批的生產中去彌補失去的損失的能力。如果這七個元素大部分傾向於原告,那麼原告可以在這個測試中獲勝,反之亦然。

第二個測試是Consumer Expectations test客戶期望測試: Product as designed was more dangerous than a consumer with ordinary knowledge common to the community as to its characteristics would expect, 就是說這個產品設計的非常危險超過了正常客戶的普通生活常識以及對這個產品特性的預期。比如你買了一台新車,開動後卻無法剎車,那麼久違反了客戶的期望。

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針對於設計缺陷有一個State of the art Defense: D argues that we exhibited the existing level of technological expertise and scientific knowledge in a particular industry at the time a product is designed 被告會辯論這個產品的設計在該領域設計的時候是符合科技專家和科學知識的。

篇幅有限,見下一篇。

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肖俊俏
肖俊俏
肖俊俏,律师,客座教授,教育学博士教育行政管理方向(2014),法律博士(2019),工商管理学博士信息与数据科学方向(2021),葫芦丝演奏家。 Junqiao Xiao, Attorney at Law; Adjunct Professor at CSML, CSPP, AIU. Doctor of Education in Educational Leadership and Management (2014); Juris Doctor (2019); Doctor of Business Administration - Information and Data Science (2021); Hulusi Musician.
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